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Model Diagnostics: Observation Distribution

These figures show the distribution of real-time observations used in the model for the ROMS models. The top panel show the use of satellite collected sea surface height, ARGO floats, Seagliders, and high frequency radios (located at Koko Head, Kaka'ako, Ka‘ena Point, and Kalaeloa on Oahu and Keaukaha on Big Island), and the bottom panel shows the sea surface temperature distributions from satellites (OSTIA, AVHRR, MODIS_Terra, MODIS_Aqua). For a brief description of the instrument platforms, click here.


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Brief description of Instrument Platforms

Satellite based Sea Surface Temperature:

MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor: Nominally provides sea surface temperature (SST) data from the Terra (see predicted path) and Aqua (see predicted path) satellites with 1.1 km resolution at nadar. This data is produced by GHRSST and distributed by the PO.DAAC. The MODIS website is located here.

AVHRR (Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer) sensor: This SST dataset has a 1.1 km resolution at nadar and is available from GHRSST and distributed by PO.DAAC. For more information on AVHRR, click here.

OSTIA (Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis): A daily 4 km resolution gridded product of sea surface temperature, generated from infrared and microwave satellite data and in-situ observations. This dataset is available from GHRSST. Click here for a paper describing the OSTIA system.

Satellite Based Sea Surface Height:

The sea surface height (SSH) is calculated by adding the sea level anomaly (SLA) to the mean ocean sea surface height. The SLA data used in the model is a product of several altimeter satellites with along-track resolutions ranging from 6 to 10 km. The dataset is produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by AVISO. More information regarding the various satellites and resulting product may be viewed here.

High Frequency Radio surface velocity:

Surface radial velocity fields are generated at 15 minute intervals and calculated from backscatter information off surface waves. This data is produced and distributed by the High Frequency Radio Oceanography Laboratory. Further details of Hawaii's high frequency radios may be found here.

In-situ temperature and salinity profiles:

ARGO Floats (Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography): These instruments provide profiles of temperature and salinity measurements from the surface to 2000 m in depth every 10 days, and the data are distributed by the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE). More information on ARGO floats may be found here.

Seaglider: Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) capture temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen data up to 1000m in depth. Data is collected and distributed by the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program and the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS). More details and videos on seagliders are available here.



Note: These model data were generated as part of an academic research project, and the principal investigator, Brian Powell, asks to be informed of intent for scientific use and appropriate acknowledgment given in any publications arising therefrom. The data are provided free of charge, without warranty of any kind.

Please consider acknowledging PacIOOS in any distribution or publication of data as follows: Data provided by PacIOOS (www.pacioos.org), which is a part of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®), funded in part by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Award #NA11NOS0120039.